- "same-sex marriage" translation into Spanish
- Gay marriage in Spanish | English to Spanish Translation - SpanishDict
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In general, the fit is better when model factors are increased. Thus, the two-factor second order model is the most parsimonious for all indexes obtained. Table 3 also shows the factor saturations for each of the five sub-scales model items. All of the 20 items of the standardized solution loaded on the general grouping factor in the expected direction. In order to study the relation between the ATLG scale and other variables reported relevant in the literature on homophobia, a multiple regression standard model analysis was made to test sex effect, socioeconomic level, religion, and political self-categorization.
The socioeconomic level variable has no effect on ATLG scores.
"same-sex marriage" translation into Spanish
Finally, results above show that religious subjects and those who identify with the right in the political continuum have more negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Considering the good fit of the models, factors increase as model fit increases. So, the two-factor, second order model proposed achieves the best fit, giving the ATLG structure greater flexibility.
Results support the hypothesis that the ATLG factor structure is complex and would not aim at measuring a general factor of sexual prejudice, and that ATG and ATL, although closely correlated, allow obtaining a differentiated measure of prejudice toward gay men and lesbians. The factor that best explains negative attitudes toward lesbians is the questioning their presence poses on Traditional Values.
This questioning of values involves the transgression of gender roles established and the questioning of women's role in the social structure. The other two ATL dimensions refer to both lesbian's Social Rights and the Social Sanction that comes from their rights and traditional role transgression. That is the reason for this role transgression to be so negatively assessed in "machista" societies like the Chilean one and for lesbians to obtain attitude measures less favorable than gay men from both heterosexual men and women assessing them.
The case of gay men is slightly different since ATG dimensions focus on other issues. Beliefs about male homosexuality and its nature are important. Previous studies indicate that gay men are evaluated more negatively if they are supposed to be able to control their sexual pref-. Maybe, that is why the factor Beliefs groups together with Rights since although they are theoretically separable, gay men rights would depend or be closely linked with the attributions heterosexual subjects give to homosexuality nature.
Female gender role transgression is more punished than that of gay men because the latter only quit a certain privileged position with their option, thus placing themselves at the same level as any other social minority group. The existence of an anti-minority bias deeply rooted in more conservative societies must be remembered to explain prejudice levels. Lesbians are different because their self-affirmation questions the possibilities of reproducing a social model based on male dominion. They claim an equalitarian position in the social hierarchy.
Gay marriage in Spanish | English to Spanish Translation - SpanishDict
Accepting that a man is gay involves that some of them are not gay any more, but accepting a lesbian implies a reformulation of the social hierarchy. Results show that prejudice levels toward gay men are low, this transgression being more sociably tolerable than that of lesbians. ATLG scale properties are robust and thus make it a good indicator of the population attitude toward the two groups and, therefore, the scale division remains pertinent.
Anyway, the scale assessed remains pertinent to distinguish these attitude groups, regardless of the fact that these differences were not considered during its elaboration. Finally, the social transgressions that affirmation of sexual identification involves are those which play a central role in attitude development, while prejudice deals with societal segmentation and hierarchization.
So, the transgression of traditional values and gender roles associated is still regarded as socially inconvenient since it questions both the dominion of some groups over others and the existing social hierarchy. Thus, religious individuals and right wingers could consistently assess homosexuals lower since they play extremely rigid gender roles.
In addition, they punish female transgression more than male transgression since women question these values and roles, while men only put them aside. The study has some limitations it is necessary to comment. In first order, the questionnaire analyzed does not lack the common problems occurring in self-reported measurements.
Another limitation relates to the convenience undergraduate sample used. The generalizability limits with such types of samples are documented, but in Chile research on this issue is just starting. Therefore, the data reported here should be viewed as preliminary. Bentler, M. Covariance structure analysis: Statistical practice, theory and directions.
Annual Review of Psychology, 47, Browne, M. Alternative ways of assessing model fit.
Long Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Journal of Sex Research, 45 2 , Greenwald, A. Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem and stereotypes. Psychological Review, , Herek, G.
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